Oleh: I Putu Gede Andy Pandy | Januari 29, 2009

Interior Lighting Design

In The Lighting Mood

by: Laurence James

Traditionally, spring is the time when many of us think about redecorating or remodelling a room in our home and we begin skimming through glossy magazines, or visiting showrooms for ideas. The results always look stunning, but how do you replicate ‘that’ look in your own home when your rooms are probably a fraction of the size of those featured in home interior publications? Even if you had the time, energy and resources to purchase exactly the same products that appear in a beautifully prepared photograph or showroom, somehow they never seem to look the same in your own home.
The answer may be in your lighting or more accurately your light levels and lighting schemes. Every home will have a unique light level that is dependant upon many things; the way the rooms and windows face, the size and type of windows, the colour of the decoration and the density of furniture in the rooms. It is an eclectic mix, but these factors can make a huge difference. Natural light plays an important part in the mix, since it can create an infinite array of atmospheres and moods in any room through the course of the day, from bright and invigorating to subdued and tranquil.
Colours, Textures and Fabrics
The many forms created by natural light are something that we probably notice occasionally, but perhaps don’t fully appreciate. Before spending vast sums of money on elaborate interior design schemes, just carry out your own survey over a few days. Move furniture and accessories around to see the effects the changes can make. Create new features and try different window treatments, like Venetian blinds or layers of fabric such as fine muslin. It is relatively simple to experiment with these solutions, but you may wish to make fundamental changes to the lighting characteristics in your home by carrying out some structural alterations, such as fitting a roof light or dormer window. These solutions are naturally more involved, but can produce dramatic results.
If your budget only enables you to redecorate rather than refurbish, then bear in mind the effects different colours and textures can have on the level of light in a room. Pale colours are reflective, while dark colours and materials absorb light. White ceilings reflect light as do cream carpets but dark wooden floors and dark coloured walls absorb light and make rooms feel more claustrophobic. The mood and atmosphere that you are trying to create will determine the colours and materials that you use.
Choosing The Right Type of Lighting
So far, we have only addressed the natural light issue and how to understand and make best use of the level of light that you have. Aspects of lighting should be an integral part of your thinking. It is not something that should be deferred until you have decorated and are putting the finishing touches to a room. The type of lighting that you use should be thought about at the planning stage, as you may need to install some new electrical wiring or fittings. It’s too late when the walls have been painted or wallpapered and the flooring has been laid!
How do you choose the type of lighting you need? Are you going to just replace the lampshade in the centre of the ceiling, or are you going to be more ambitious and create different levels of lighting that can be adjusted to reflect the mood and atmosphere you want to create? If you wish to emulate the image in the glossy magazine, then you are going to have to give your lighting some thought, but the guidelines are straightforward. There three basic types of light:
General lighting or ambient light.
A pendant light in the centre of the room typically provides this type of lighting and it provides a good level of brightness for everyday use
Feature or accent lighting
Creates highlights and can be used to focus on particular architectural features you have in your home, such as fireplaces or alcoves
Task lighting
Which as its name suggests, is specifically designed to provide strong localised light for specific tasks, such as cooking, reading and close work

A blend of all these types of lighting should be considered in any lighting scheme you are planning. Naturally, the combination you use is your personal choice and will determine the eventual look and feel that is achieved. Balance is the key
Having identified the basic types of light that are used, you need to understand the different kinds of fittings that are at your disposal. For simplicity these can be categorised as follows:
Downlighters: These are usually recessed in the ceiling, but can also be wall mounted. The light is direct and focused and will cast shadows. When used in quantity, these lights can provide a good level of ambient light
Uplighters: These wash ceilings with light, which is then reflected back into a room in an even manner. They can be free standing or wall mounted and therefore provide great flexibility. Some pendants also provide uplighting properties
Wall washers: When surface mounted, these provide an even light across and down a wall. Different effects can be achieved by varying the fitting and its position on a vertical surface
Decorative Lighting: This can be used to add visual focus in a room and provide general lighting properties to specific areas. Decorative lighting is often used as an integral feature of an overall room set

Light Reflecting Your Personality
By experimenting with the categories of light that have been described above, you should be able to create the atmosphere and mood you desire. There are numerous solutions and the process may involve a degree of trial and error. If you are seeking the ultimate in flexibility and refinement, then dimmer or control systems should be used. At their simplest they can be controlled manually, or at their most complex they can be varied electronically to provide an infinite number of individual light settings.
Whatever you choose to do, you will stand a better chance of emulating that advertisement in a glossy magazine. Lighting plays such an important part in everyone’s home. The type of lighting scheme you adopt will not only satisfy your functional needs, but it could play a large part in creating atmospheres and moods that influence your own attitudes and behaviours.
Interior Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
Understanding The Lighting System

Light can define space, substance and style. Outdoors, with the shifting sun and atmospheric conditions, light and the shadows change the appearance of things natural and man made. But in the indoors, the play of natural and artificial lighting largely determine both function and decoration.

Today lighting is considered to be a very important element of decorating scheme. The invention of the incandescent bulb in 1978 revolutionized lighting systems as it allowed light to be easily manipulated. Apart from exploiting natural light by using opaque or transparent glass walls, sky lights, large windows etc. for offices, architect work out the detailed light fittings which are conducive for a work environment. In homes, a careful selection of lights extends and enhances the aesthetics of interiors. Similarly for hotels, showrooms, museums, gardens, water bodies, individual lighting requirements are worked out. Artificial light falling from various angles and heights on different surfaces guide us to perceive various features and dimensions while creating a specific mood. With technological developments and the stress on precision lighting, a variety of lighting fixtures are readily available with options which offer manifold possibilities in terms of effect.

The choice of fitting according to the room , gets very difficult , one gets puzzled off as there are so many varieties in lights like the table lamps , spot lights , clamp lights , recessed / surface mounted lights , up lighters , halogens , incandescent bulb , pendants , fluorescent fixtures and lots of others. Once the basic idea of the space, mood, interior design, highlighting, function of work have been specified, one can then consider the basic types of lighting. Initially only the planned positions of lights need to be decided. Later, the selection of bulbs and the exact effect can be created. One should always keep in mind some of the basic rules while designing the light.
• Every activity that takes place in the interior must have lights of the right kind, intensity and the right direction.
• The eye prefers even lighting with the minimum of contrast between the brightness of the room surfaces and the lighting fixtures.
• The eye works best when the work surface is more brightly lit then the surroundings.
• The eye is stimulated by the contrast of tone and sparkle.
• When room lighting change, color changes or disappear, thus objects become more or less important in the room.
• There are three basic types of lighting which are categorized according to the intensity of the light used.
General lighting – It supplies an overall illumination in the area.

Task lighting – It supplies the required illumination for specific tasks such as reading, painting etc. It directs strong local illumination without high general illumination as required for activities carried in a particular area.

Accent lighting- It offers a decorative element to the area by highlighting the particular objects or features in the area. They are auxiliary to the general lighting and provide an added, and at times, dramatic dimensions to the scheme.

Spaces can be provided with one, two or all types of these lightings, depending upon the requirement. With different types of lighting in each room and dimmers to adjust the intensity of light, an ordinary space can be infused with much dramatic look to convey different moods to suit different times of the day.

9) UNDERSTANDING THE LIGHTING SYSTEM

Light can define space , substance and style. Outdoors , with the shifting sun and atmospheric conditions , light and the shadows change the appearance of things natural and man made. But in the indoors , the play of natural and artificial lighting largely determine both function and decoration.

Today lighting is considered to be a very important element of decorating scheme. The invention of the incandescent bulb in 1978 revolutionized lighting systems as it allowed light to be easily manipulated. Apart from exploiting natural light by using opaque or transparent glass walls , sky lights , large windows etc. for offices , architect work out the detailed light fittings which are conducive for a work environment . In homes , a careful selection of lights extends and enhances the aesthetics of interiors. Similarly for hotels , showrooms , museums , gardens , water bodies , individual lighting requirements are worked out. Artificial light falling from various angles and heights on different surfaces guide us to perceive various features and dimensions while creating a specific mood. With technological developments and the stress on precision lighting , a variety of lighting fixtures are readily available with options which offer manifold possibilities in terms of effect.

The choice of fitting according to the room , gets very difficult , one gets puzzled off as there are so many varieties in lights like the table lamps , spot lights , clamp lights , recessed / surface mounted lights , uplighters , halogens , incandescent bulb , pendants , fluorescent fixtures and lots of others. Once the basic idea of the space , mood , interior design , highlighting , function of work have been specified , one can then consider the basic types of lighting. Initially only the planned positions of lights need to be decided. Later , the selection of bulbs and the exact effect can be created. One should always keep in mind some of the basic rules while designing the light.

– Every activity that takes place in the interior must have lights of the right kind , intensity and the right direction.
– The eye prefers even lighting with the minimum of contrast between the brightness of the room surfaces and the lighting fixtures.
– The eye works best when the work surface is more brightly lit then the surroundings.
– The eye is stimulated by the contrast of tone and sparkle.
– When room lighting change , color changes or disappear , thus objects become more or less important in the room.

There are three basic types of lighting which are categorized according to the intensity of the light used.

General lighting- It supplies an overall illumination in the area.

Task lighting – It supplies the required illumination for specific tasks such as reading , painting etc. It directs strong local illumination without high general illumination as required for activities carried in a particular area.

Accent lighting- It offers a decorative element to the area by highlighting the particular objects or features in the area. They are auxiliary to the general lighting and provide an added , and at times , dramatic dimensions to the scheme.

Spaces can be provided with one , two or all types of these lightings , depending upon the requirement . With different types of lighting in each room and dimmers to adjust the intensity of light , an ordinary space can be infused with much dramatic look to convey different moods to suit different times of the day.

10) MAINTAINING THE LIGHTING SYSTEM

The term lighting refers to the useful energy output of a system consisting of light sources , fixtures to support them in appropriate locations , wiring channels to activate the light sources and the convenient electrical controls. Here are the tips on how to maintain the lighting system in different rooms according to the ambience .

LIVING ROOM lighting : The living room is the core of domestic life. People decorate them according to their interest , but the one element that is common to all is the intangible style , which is not dictated by prevailing trends or large amounts of money. Here are some basics how to illuminate it properly.

– Establish an adequate general illumination level to reduce the accent light , brightness , contrast.
– Illuminate an entire wall with overhead fixtures to provide background for room furnishings.
– Feature window areas with the cosmic lighting.
– Indirect light like that under a pelment or above a cabinet will supply soft uniform illumination.
– Use dimmers to program lighting moods.
– Play up with the architectural features like aala , niches , mantles etc.
– Highlight artwork and plants with individual lighting arrangements.
– Be sure that the floor , table and hanging fixtures have adequate shades to prevent glare.
– Plan adequate lighting to handle a variety of family activities like rack for display.
– Bar area could use incandescent light to play up sparkling glassware. Lighted shelves or fluorescent fixtures under the front edge of bar are effective.

DINING ROOM lighting : The decor of dining room depends upon the culture of the family. A dining room can change the style of eating. So one should be careful while playing with the lights to make the environment relax and easy.

– One must keep the visual emphasis off the ceiling and walls and on the décor of food and guests.
– Ceiling down lights should fall and focus primarily on dining room table surface.
– Candles and fuel lamps in decorative holders can add special touch to any meal.
– Buffey or service areas and chinaware/silverware/crockery displays deserve special lighting emphasis.

KITCHEN lighting : Kitchen is a place where a lady spends her maximum time so it should have comfortable and fresh feeling. Today’s kitchens are far removed from the dark dingy spaces one saw earlier.

– General lighting for a kitchen should be well distributed , uniform and as shadow less as possible.
– Fluorescent fixtures reduce the energy demands without sacrificing illumination.
– Even if there is window in the kitchen , install down lighting over a sink for cloudy days or nights.
– Special lighting for key work areas can be installed in the ceiling or in the upper cabinets.
– Provide light for storage areas in pantry or wall cabinets overhead or shelf mounted brackets will do the job.

Bedroom Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting

The bedroom is a place where one can be totally oneself. It is the room where we spend the maximum amount of time – to sleep, relax and unwind, after a long tiring day and rejuvenate oneself for the tomorrow.
• The lighting should be a soothing general illumination. If want to highlight some paintings or photographs, one can go for a task lighting in this area.
• Up lighters look very beautiful, dimmers can be very useful to play with the intensity of the light as per mood.
• Lights should be planned in such a way that it must create a light, romantic, relaxing environment. Table lamps or hanging lamp shades provides the room a very aesthetic look.
(11) BATHROOM LIGHTNING

Planning and designing is a tedious job. Today’s bathroom wears a well dressed look , its design recognizing people’s needs to begin and end their day in pleasant surroundings. It is after all an intimate personal place- perhaps the only room in the house where one can be totally private and get much needed peace.

– For a relatively small room , the bath area can use a no. of different types of lighting.
– General lighting is essential in a compact bath , a central ceiling may suffice.
– Medium size and large size baths and especially those with sectioned areas for tub , shower and toilet will require several overhead fixtures.
– The lights are general , recessed into the ceilings or those over a tub or a shower must be watertight and vapour proof . A minimum of 100W incandescent or 60W fluorescent lamp is sufficient.
– The most critical lighting in a bath centers around the mirror area , this is the basic for good grooming. For shaving , make up applications hair care , light should be soft and diffused without glare or shadow.
– Avoid lighting the mirror itself rather light of the person looking into the mirror . The most efficient to light up a person’s face is to use three fixtures , one on either side of the mirror and one overhead. Side fixtures should be mounted 30″ – 36″ apart on the wall and install about 60″ above the floor.
– Incandescent fixtures should have a minimum of 75W bulb and fluorescent tubes on either side of 20W and one tube of 30W or two tubes of 15W overhead. Additional bath lighting for specific purposes may include plant lights to take the advantage of bath humidity for growing the flowers and ferns.

READING ROOM lighting : The study is the most important room for the intellectuals , for students as this is the room where one builds his carrer. In the reading room , one should plan the lights very carefully as the intensity affects a lot on the eyes thus on the health.
– In a study , the priority is to provide adequate illumination for reading and writing. For maximum pleasure of reading and for easier concentration , reading lamps must have a proper quality and quantity of illumination and be placed so that the light falls comfortably on the open page.
– The complete room may be lit with powerful uplighters , downlighters , or the general lighting may be reduced to be supplemented with task lights as required . For the study it is necessary that task lights be supported with general illumination even if it is of low intensity to avoid eye strain.
– Care should be taken where computers are placed , the task light should not produce glare or reflections on the screen. Task lights for writing should be positioned so as to avoid both glare and shadow.
– If floor lamps are used as reading lights , then it should be 40″-49″ from the floor to the bottom edge of the shade. The shade should be moderately illuminous to softly diffuse the light and eliminate glare , thus open top shades are preferred.

BEDROOM lighting : The bedroom is a place where one can be totally oneself. It is the room where we spend the maximum amount of time – to sleep , relax and unwind , after a long tiring day and rejuvenate oneself for the tomorrow.

– the lighting should be a soothing general illumination . If want to highlight some paintings or photographs , one can go for a task lighting in this area.
– Uplighters look very beautiful , dimmers can be very useful to play with the intensity of the light as per mood.
– Lights should be planned in such a way that it must create a light , romantic , relaxing environment. Table lamps or hanging lamp shades provides the room a very aesthetic look.

SWIMMING POOL / FOUNTAINS lighting : Water presents a challenging and rewarding medium for lighting . Swimming pools , fountains , waterfalls magically come to life with lighting effects at night.

– For effective swimming pool lighting , the lights are generally set below the water level , into the sides of the pool.
– This should be done while the construction of the pool so as to keep the wiring away from water.
– The lights should be placed to shimmer down the deep end of the pool.
– Fountains are effectively lit by submerged narrow beam sources set near the base of each jet or falling on the flowing water casting a color and sparkle on it. Waterfall comes to life when lit from behind.

GARDEN lighting : Garden is a place where man interacts and is near to the mother nature even at the time when we are on the verge of destroying it.

– Lighting should be planned according to desired landscape lighting effects as well as providing adequate light for walking , security etc.
– All lights , wiring and metal work should be able to resist weather conditions for a prolonged period of time like dust , moisture and corrosion.
– The lighting should illuminate select areas , should create striking effects and keeps what is to be concealed in shadows.

Thus , the way of lighting drastically changes the way of living and mood of the environment. So one must be very careful while planning the lights and choosing the fixtures as in the end , if worked carelessly , it can result into mis match of everything.

Kitchen Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
Kitchen is a place where a lady spends her maximum time so it should have comfortable and fresh feeling. Today’s kitchens are far removed from the dark dingy spaces one saw earlier.

• General lighting for a kitchen should be well distributed, uniform and as shadow less as possible.
• Fluorescent fixtures reduce the energy demands without sacrificing illumination.
• Even if there is window in the kitchen, install down lighting over a sink for cloudy days or nights.
• Special lighting for key work areas can be installed in the ceiling or in the upper cabinets.
• Provide light for storage areas in pantry or wall cabinets overhead or shelf mounted brackets will do the job.

Dining Room Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
The decor of dining room depends upon the culture of the family. A dining room can change the style of eating. So one should be careful while playing with the lights to make the environment relax and easy.

• One must keep the visual emphasis off the ceiling and walls and on the décor of food and guests.
• Ceiling down lights should fall and focus primarily on dining room table surface.
• Candles and fuel lamps in decorative holders can add special touch to any meal.
• Buffet or service areas and chinaware/silverware/crockery displays deserve special lighting emphasis.

LIVING ROOM lighting

• Establish an adequate general illumination level to reduce the accent light, brightness, contrast.
• Illuminate an entire wall with overhead fixtures to provide background for room furnishings.
• Feature window areas with the cosmic lighting.
• Indirect light like that under a pelmet or above a cabinet will supply soft uniform illumination.
• Use dimmers to program lighting moods.
• Play up with the architectural features like aala, niches, mantles etc.
• Highlight artwork and plants with individual lighting arrangements.
• Be sure that the floor, table and hanging fixtures have adequate shades to prevent glare.
• Plan adequate lighting to handle a variety of family activities like rack for display.
• Bar area could use incandescent light to play up sparkling glassware. Lighted shelves or fluorescent fixtures under the front edge of bar are effective.

Reading Room Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
The study is the most important room for the intellectuals, for students as this is the room where one builds his career. In the reading room, one should plan the lights very carefully as the intensity affects a lot on the eyes thus on the health.
• In a study, the priority is to provide adequate illumination for reading and writing. For maximum pleasure of reading and for easier concentration, reading lamps must have a proper quality and quantity of illumination and be placed so that the light falls comfortably on the open page.
• The complete room may be lit with powerful up lighters, down lighters, or the general lighting may be reduced to be supplemented with task lights as required. For the study it is necessary that task lights be supported with general illumination even if it is of low intensity to avoid eye strain.
• Care should be taken where computers are placed; the task light should not produce glare or reflections on the screen. Task lights for writing should be positioned so as to avoid both glare and shadow.
• If floor lamps are used as reading lights, then it should be 40″-49″ from the floor to the bottom edge of the shade. The shade should be moderately illuminous to softly diffuse the light and eliminate glare, thus open top shades are preferred.

Garden Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
: Garden is a place where man interacts and is near to the Mother Nature even at the time when we are on the verge of destroying it.

• Lighting should be planned according to desired landscape lighting effects as well as providing adequate light for walking, security etc.
• All lights, wiring and metal work should be able to resist weather conditions for a prolonged period of time like dust, moisture and corrosion.
• The lighting should illuminate select areas, should create striking effects and keeps what is to be concealed in shadows.
Thus, the way of lighting drastically changes the way of living and mood of the environment. So one must be very careful while planning the lights and choosing the fixtures as in the end, if worked carelessly, it can result into mis match of everything.

Swimming Pool Lighting
» Living Room Lighting :: Dining Room Lighting :: Kitchen Lighting :: Bathroom Lighting
» Reading Room Lighting :: Bedroom Lighting :: Swimming Pool Lighting :: Garden Lighting
Water presents a challenging and rewarding medium for lighting. Swimming pools, fountains, waterfalls magically come to life with lighting effects at night.

• For effective swimming pool lighting, the lights are generally set below the water level, into the sides of the pool.
• This should be done while the construction of the pool so as to keep the wiring away from water.
• The lights should be placed to shimmer down the deep end of the pool.
• Fountains are effectively lit by submerged narrow beam sources set near the base of each jet or falling on the flowing water casting a color and sparkle on it. Waterfall comes to life when lit from behind.


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